Hyperdontia is a condition where there is excessive growth of teeth in your mouth. The extra teeth are called supernumerary teeth. These extra teeth can grow in any part of the dental arches, which is the curved area where the teeth and the jaw are attached.
Hyperdontia is not age, gender, or race-specific, but it is more common in people with cleft lip, Gardner’s syndrome, or children with Down Syndrome. Thus, anyone suffering from Hyperdontia without these diseases is considered to be abnormal. Now depending upon the location and morphology of the extra teeth, Hyperdontia can be categorized into two types-
Paramolar Hyperdontia- When the growth of extra teeth occurs beside the molar teeth, they are named as Paramolar Hyperdontia. They are generally not developed completely.
Mesiodens Hyperdontia- This type is more common and consists of growing extra teeth between the two upper central incisors. Based on the shape of the tooth, this can be further classified into-
Symptoms and Causes of Hyperdontia
The apparent symptom of Hyperdontia is the extra teeth growing anywhere in the dental arch. Generally, it is not painful, but in some cases, the crowding of teeth can cause additional pressure on the jaws and gums, leading to swollen and sore gums. It also causes disorientation of teeth, which will bring change in the looks of the sufferer. Nonetheless, more than the required pair of teeth cause a hindrance to the speech and eating habits.
Even though a lot of research has to be done before concluding every cause of the Hyperdontia, still there are two main factors responsible for the same-
- Genetic factors- Parents with supernumerary teeth are prone to have a child with the same disease.
- Environmental factors( The exact cause or the triggering element is still unknown).
Treatment of hyperdontia
The earlier it is diagnosed, the better it is treated. Though completely grown extra teeth can easily present the problem, it is still difficult to guess the issue at an early stage. The experts suggest that it can be diagnosed at the age of 2 or onwards. All you need to do is to be attentive while taking the child’s care, instead of overlooking the small details of their body.
Well, in some cases, hyperdontia need not be treated, but in few others, those extra teeth cause hindrance to the regular processes, thus arising the need to be removed. Here are a few conditions, where a dentist will recommend you to remove the supernumerary teeth-
- When you have a genetic condition making the extra teeth to appear
- When you can’t chew the food properly, and the extra teeth cut the mouth while eating
- When the extra teeth cause discomfort or uneasiness
- When you are not able to brush or floss your teeth because of Hyperdontia leading to gum diseases and cavities
- When you feel self-conscious about your looks because of the extra teeth.
If the extra teeth are creating problems in eating, chewing, brushing, or in the growth of the permanent teeth, it is suggested to remove them as soon as possible. Otherwise, they can create long-lasting painful effects.